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Dependency Injection

Wire is a compile-time dependency injection tool.

In dependencies between individual components, explicit initialization is generally encouraged rather than global variable passing.

Therefore, the initialization code through wire can well solve the coupling between components and improve code maintainability.


# Import into project
go get -u

# Install cmd
go install


Wire has two basic concepts: Provider and Injector

Provider is an ordinary Go Func, it can also receive the values from other providers for dependency injection.

// This provides a data config file.
func NewConfig() *conf.Data {...}

// This provides the data component (installs database, cache, etc.) which depends on the data config.
func NewData(c *conf.Data) (*Data, error) {...}

// This provides persistence components which depends on the data component.
func NewUserRepo(d *data.Data) (*UserRepo, error) {...}


In Go-Micro project, there are four major modules, server, service, biz and data. They will be initialized by wire.

go-micro wire usage

A ProvideSet should be provided in every module so that wire could scan them and generate the DI (Dependency Injection) codes.

First, you should define ProviderSet in the entry (recommended in init.go file) of every module.

internal/data   // the data module
├── data.go // func NewData(cfg *conf.Bootstrap, logger log.Logger) (*Data, func(), error)
├── greeter.go // func NewGreeterRepo(data *Data, logger log.Logger) GreeterRepo
└── init.go // var ProviderSet = wire.NewSet(NewData, NewGreeterRepo)

Then put these ProviderSet in the wire.go file for DI configuration.

Component Initialization

To initialize components through wire, you need to define the corresponding wire.go and Go-Micro application for startup management.

cmd     // the entry point of the application
└── server
├── main.go
├── wire.go
└── wire_gen.go

// main.go creates the go-micro application for lifecycle management
func newApp(ll log.Logger, hs *http.Server, gs *grpc.Server, rr registry.Registrar) *micro.App {
return micro.New(

// wire.go init micro application.
func initApp(log.Logger, registry.Registrar, *conf.Bootstrap) (*micro.App, func(), error) {
// builds ProvideSet in every module, and generate the wire_gen.go file
panic(wire.Build(server.ProviderSet, data.ProviderSet, biz.ProviderSet, service.ProviderSet, newApp))

Run go generate command in main service directory to generate DI codes.

go generate ./...

The DI codes inside the wire_gen.go look like:

// initApp init micro application.
func initApp(logger log.Logger, registrar registry.Registrar, bootstrap *conf.Bootstrap) (*micro.App, func(), error) {
dataData, cleanup, err := data.NewData(bootstrap, logger)
if err != nil {
return nil, nil, err
greeterRepo := data.NewGreeterRepo(dataData, logger)
greeterUseCase := biz.NewGreeterUseCase(greeterRepo, logger)
greeterService := service.NewGreeterService(greeterUseCase)
httpServer := server.NewHTTPServer(bootstrap, logger, greeterService)
grpcServer := server.NewGRPCServer(bootstrap, logger, greeterService)
app := newApp(logger, httpServer, grpcServer, registrar)
return app, func() {
}, nil